#1 House Cat
Also known as the Domestic Cat or the Feral Cat
, a small feline, and a good hunter. Contrary to popular belief, however, they are not truly domesticated. Cats are highly intelligent and good at problem solving.
There are about 60 cat breeds.
It was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because cats in ancient Egypt were venerated from around 3100 BC. However, the earliest indication for the taming of an African wildcat was found in Cyprus.
Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. Compared to humans, they see better in the dark (they see in near total darkness) and have a better sense of smell, but poorer color vision. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species. Cat communication includes the use of vocalizations including meowing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting as well as cat-specific body language. Cats also communicate by secreting and perceiving pheromones.
What do you need to take care of a cat?
Groom your cat regularly
Whether your cat has short or long fur, he will benefit greatly from regular brushing or combing. It helps remove the dead hair from his coat so he doesn't ingest it while self-grooming.
Provide fresh water daily
Clean, fresh water is essential for your cat's good health. A good tip is a cat fountain to stimulate drinking. Be sure to replenish the water with a fresh supply every day.
Make sure you have enough litter boxes
A general rule of thumb for litter boxes is one for each cat plus one more. To encourage litter box usage, keep the litter box clean. This may mean scooping more than once per day.
Train your cat to use a scratching post
Regular scratching on an appropriate surface such as carpet, sisal, or cardboard helps remove the old layers from your cat's claws.
High-quality food (not always the most expensive) is the best way to feed your cat and ensure a good health. Be aware of giving your cat too much salt. Potato chips or ham contain large amounts of salt, and this cause kidney damage. Only give healthy food to your cat, like natural chicken fillet or fish as snack.
And of course attention, a lot of attention!
The Domestic Dog
is a subspecies of the wolf. The dog was the first species to be domesticated and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.
Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely attuned to human behavior and they are able to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canid species.
They perform many roles for humans, such as hunting, herding, pulling loads, protection, assisting police and military, companionship and, more recently, aiding disabled people and therapeutic roles. This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of "man's best friend".
What do you need to take care of a dog?
A protected and clean living environment
Shelter from the elements and hazards as well as good hygiene are basic to a quality life.
Always keep fresh water available
Give your dog open access to water at all times.
Brushing your dog regularly will help to reduce shedding and it gives you a chance to assess the state of your dog's body. Your aim is to keep the coat in good condition and knot free.
Harness or collar with ID tag
The most important thing your dog will ever own is her identification tag. Even if you choose to microchip your dog, you still want to be sure someone can identify her if she gets lost.
Get a leash that clips easily into her harness/collar so you can take it on and off without issue, and consider a retractable leash if you plan to take your dog on lots of walks.
Food and water bowls
Stainless steel food and water bowls are the best as they do not harbor bacteria and are also less breakable than ceramic.
Feed your dog on a regular schedule. It is recommended that you feed your dog twice a day. Some kind of meat, not meat by-product or a grain.
Remember to provide healthy treats rather than table scraps, as rewards. Avoid giving your dog an excessive amount of treats or people food.
Dogs get mental stimulation from playing with toys. Aim for toys that are easy to clean, aren't easily destructed, and replaceable if lost.
Make sure your dog gets the regular exercise needed to enable it to be fit. By being in shape, your dog will be more capable of participating in the activities that it enjoys. Provide the right amount of exercise for the type of dog you have, a small toy dog may be better playing games of fetch or ball to tire it out, while a Labrador needs to have good long walks, for at least 30 - 45 minutes twice a day in order to burn its energy.
Many breeds are prone to gum disease, which can have serious implications.
Make sure you have a good, reliable veterinarian.
Rabbits are widespread kept as pets in many areas of the world, and as a source of artistic inspiration.
The rabbit often appears in folklore as the trickster archetype, as he uses his cunning to outwit his enemies.
With their twitchy nose, cotton tail and adorable yawn. Independent yet cuddly, there is no denying that bunnies are cute!
What do you need to take care of a rabbit?
Safe indoor housing
They can live free-reign in a bunny proofed room/rooms, or they can be contained within a puppy pen, bunny condo, or large rabbit cage. Buy a cage large enough for your rabbit to move around.
Bedding to cover the bottom of the cage
Common options are shredded paper, straw, and hay. Try to avoid most wood shavings, because they may inhaled by accident.
A soft, rabbit-safe brush is essential for removing hair when your rabbit sheds and safety nail clippers should be used for trimming a rabbit's nails.
Buy a variety of toys for it, such as a chewing toy or a tunnel with spaces to go into.
The type of litter can also change depending on your rabbit. Common types include silica cat litter, shredded paper, wood shavings that aren't pine or cedar, straw, and hay.
The best is a heavyweight ceramic food bowl this helps the rabbit keep its bowl right side up, since most rabbits like to tip their food bowls over.
The best foods for rabbits are grass and hay. Give the majority of your rabbit's food as fresh good hay. Give your rabbit pellets and fruits and vegetables. Common vegetables include broccoli, carrot tops, beet tops, cilantro, collards, Brussel sprouts, kale, cabbage, and other greens. Despite common perception, giving a rabbit too many carrots can be very harmful. They enjoy carrots as small treats, but you should not feed carrots to rabbits daily. Weekly is usually fine.
Water bottle or bowl
It's a good idea to have a few. It is more natural for your rabbit to drink out of a bowl, but these can be knocked over, unlike the water bottle.
Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for approximately 11 months, and a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training under saddle or in harness between the ages of two and four. They reach full adult development by age five, and have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years.
Studies have indicated that horses perform a number of cognitive tasks on a daily basis, meeting mental challenges that include food procurement and identification of individuals within a social system. They also have good spatial discrimination abilities. They are naturally curious and apt to investigate things they have not seen before. Studies have assessed equine intelligence in areas such as problem solving, speed of learning, and memory. Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able to use more advanced cognitive abilities that involve categorization and concept learning. They can learn using habituation, desensitization, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning, and positive and negative reinforcement. One study has indicated that horses can differentiate between "more or less" if the quantity involved is less than four.
What do you need to take care of a horse?
Basic requirements include adequate and appropriate feed, water, shelter, space and exercise, company, health care, and treatment of illness or injury.
Clean water must always be available. A dam or self-filling trough is best. Bath tubs, must be checked daily and re-filled if necessary. Dams and self-filling troughs should also be checked frequently. As a guide, a horse may drink 25-45 litres per day in hot weather. Buckets are not suitable as a permanent water supply as they can be tipped over.
Horses must have access to an adequate amount of good quality feed in the form of roughage (pasture, hay or chaff) to keep them in good condition. A guide to the amounts to feed is 1-2 kg per 100kg of bodyweight.
Exercise and space
Horses must have enough space to walk and run around, unless they are exercised daily.
Horses need shelter from extremes of rain, sun and wind. Trees or a walk-in shed / stable make suitable shelter. A waterproof rug can be used to protect the horse from cold weather but must be checked daily.
Check your horse carefully at least daily to make sure it has enough feed and water.
The goldfish is a freshwater fish. It is one of the most commonly kept aquarium fish.
A relatively small member of the carp family, the goldfish is native to East Asia. It was first selectively bred in ancient China more than 1,000 years ago, and several distinct breeds have since been developed. Goldfish breeds vary greatly in size, body shape, fin configuration and coloration (various combinations of white, yellow, orange, red, brown, and black are known).
As of April 2008, the largest goldfish in the world was believed by the BBC to measure 19 inches (48 cm), and to be living in the Netherlands.
Goldfish have one of the most studied senses of vision in fishes. Goldfish have four kinds of cone cells, which are respectively sensitive to different colours: red, green, blue and ultraviolet.
Goldfish have strong associative learning abilities, as well as social learning skills. In addition, their visual acuity allows them to distinguish between individual humans. Owners may notice that fish react favorably to them (swimming to the front of the glass, swimming rapidly around the tank, and going to the surface mouthing for food) while hiding when other people approach the tank. Over time, goldfish learn to associate their owners and other humans with food, often "begging" for food whenever their owners approach.
Goldfish that have constant visual contact with humans also stop considering them to be a threat. After being kept in a tank for several weeks, sometimes months, it becomes possible to feed a goldfish by hand without it shying away.
Goldfish have a memory-span of at least three months and can distinguish between different shapes, colors and sounds. By using positive reinforcement, goldfish can be trained to recognize and to react to light signals of different colors or to perform tricks. Fish respond to certain colors most evidently in relation to feeding. Fish learn to anticipate feedings provided they occur at around the same time every day.
Common goldfish are social animals who prefer living in groups. They are able to interact with any fish belonging to the same species. With provision of adequate care and attention, common goldfish can become tame. Once familiar with the face of its owner, swimming towards the fish keeper during feeding time can be observed, and hand-feeding becomes possible.
Goldfish can live for long periods of time if they are fed a varied diet and housed in proper water conditions. The average lifetime of a goldfish is ten to fifteen years. The longest lived goldfish on record lived to age 43. The oldest living goldfish was Tish, won by a UK family at a funfair.
What do you need to take care of a goldfish?
You should never keep a goldfish in a bowl.
Get a large enough tank
The minimum tank size for one goldfish is 76 to 115 liters. If they don't have enough space a survival mechanism can start making it so they will stop growing.
For each additional goldfish add 56 liters of water.
Goldfish will grow to match the amount of space available. Your one-inch goldfish can potentially grow to the size of your arm! But it would only likely to do that if you give it a large pond or aquarium. You are not required to grow them to their full potential.
Use a 3 stages water filter. Mechanical for removing large particles. Chemical for removing odors, discolorations, and other organics. Biological for breaking down fish waste.
Feed your fish 1-2 times daily. Only feed them what they can eat in a minute, the label on the food is not a good guideline. Be careful not to overfeed them because they can easily overeat and die. Underfeeding is always preferable to overfeeding. Remove any excess food.
Set up the aquarium first before you buy the fish. Make sure the water and overall living conditions are good for the fish. Goldfish cannot live in small temporary environments (plastic bag) for very long. An hour is fine, several hours not very good. For the bottom of the aquarium use gravel that will not get stuck in your fish's throat. Make sure your tank has some scenery and light. Goldfish are active during the day. They need light to maintain a healthy wake/sleep cycle. Never put your tank in direct sunlight. Real plants are beneficial because they help absorb some of the nitrates that accumulate in the aquarium.
Adding your goldfish to the aquarium
Before you add your fish, you'll need to make sure the environment is fish ready. Pick up a pH test kit and test the tank for the right amount of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate levels. Best is zero ammonia, zero nitrite, and less than 20 nitrate.
Clean the aquarium
Clean the aquarium at least once every week even if it doesn't look dirty. Goldfish produce waste that even your water filter may not be entirely able to remove.
Turn off the light at night and let them get some sleep.
Hamsters are rodents and they have become established as popular small house pets. The best-known species of hamster is the golden or Syrian hamster, which is the type most commonly kept as pets. Other hamster species commonly kept as pets are the three species of dwarf hamster, Campbell's dwarf hamster, the winter white dwarf hamster and the Roborovski hamster.
Hamsters are more crepuscular than nocturnal. They feed primarily on seeds, fruits, and vegetation, and will occasionally eat insects. Physically, they are stout-bodied with distinguishing features that include elongated cheek pouches extending to their shoulders, which they use to carry food back to their burrows, as well as a short tail and fur-covered feet.
Hamsters have scent glands on their flanks (and abdomens in Chinese and dwarf hamsters) which they rub against the substrate, leaving a scent trail.
They are also particularly sensitive to high-pitched noises and can hear and communicate in the ultrasonic range.
A behavioral characteristic of hamsters is food hoarding. They carry food in their spacious cheek pouches to their underground storage chambers. When full, the cheeks can make their heads double, or even triple in size.
Syrian hamsters typically live two to three years as a pet. Russian hamsters live about two to four years as a pet, and Chinese hamsters 2 1⁄2-3 years. The smaller Roborovski hamster often lives to three years as a pet.
What do you need to take care of a hamster?
There are several kinds of hamsters and most live for about 2-3 years. Hamsters are nocturnal animals, which means that they like to sleep all day. However, dwarf hamsters are most active at dawn and dusk.
Your hamster will do best in a cage larger than 600 square inches, although 450 square inches or 30 inches by 15 inches is the minimum. It should also be more than 12 inches tall. A glass aquarium is a great home for a hamster. The disadvantage is the lack of ventilation, so make sure the lid is a wire mesh to allow for air movement. Make sure your cage is not in direct sunlight as your hamster could overheat. Make sure there is plenty of ventilation. Make sure to find a place that is quiet and free of any other household pets such as dogs and cats and make sure your hamster can't escape.
On the ground, there should be a layer of at least 6 inches of bedding. This might seem like a lot, but hamsters dig large tunnels in the wild.
Your hamster won't drink much water at all, but when it does get thirsty, it is important that water is available. Have water ready and available at all times. Do not put it in a dish. Use a water bottle or dispenser and change it every day if possible to keep the water fresh, or once every 3 days maximum.
Feed your hamster every day. Hamsters need a pelleted food. Provide your hamster with enough food each day to fill both cheeks. Make sure you provide fresh food in their bowl every day. Use an earthenware or metal dish for their food. Use fortified pellets or block-type food. Seed mixtures allow the hamster to be picky and to select the tastier, less healthy items. Avoid human foods. Things such as candy, pasta, raw meat/fish, sugar, and desserts.
Hamster favorites include carrots, cucumber, apples, bananas, peppers, lettuce, celery.
Hamster wheel for exercise!
Buy one that is minimum 28 cm.
Be sure that you have lots of toys for the hamster to enjoy. Toys such as toilet paper rolls, empty tissue boxes, tubes, tunnels, PVC piping.
Feathers are a feature characteristic of birds. They facilitate flight, provide insulation that aids in thermoregulation, and are used in display, camouflage, and signalling. There are several types of feathers, each serving its own set of purposes.
Most birds can fly, which distinguishes them from almost all other vertebrate classes. Flight is the primary means of locomotion for most bird species and is used for searching for food and for escaping from predators.
Most birds are active during daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. But some birds, such as many species of owls and nightjars, are nocturnal.
Some birds, especially corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals; several bird species make and use tools, and many social species pass on knowledge across generations, which is considered a form of culture.
Water is needed by many birds although their mode of excretion and lack of sweat glands reduces the physiological demands.
Birds' diets are varied and often include nectar, fruit, plants, seeds. Because birds have no teeth, their digestive system is adapted to process unmasticated food items that are swallowed whole.
The most popular pet birds are: Cockatiels, Budgies, or parakeets, African Grey Parrots, Quaker Parrots, Caiques, Conures, Finches and Canaries.
What do you need to take care of a bird?
Having the appropriate essentials is important to the health and happiness of your bird.
Birds need a diet of food pellets specifically for birds. You can also give it fresh/ dehydrated fruits and vegetables, along with beans, nuts and cooked brown rice. Avoid onion, alcohol, avocado, chocolate, these are toxic to birds.
Water and food bowls
The best are wide rather than deep cups. They will encourage your bird to try new food items. Many water and food dishes have built in perch, and they all have a ledge the bird can balance on as he drinks and eats. Perches need not be set close to the bowls to avoid overeating.
Buy the biggest cage you can afford! The bird cage should be made of a strong, non-toxic material, that is easy to clean. Basic measuring estimate is a cage that's wide enough to not cramp fully extended wings and high enough to accomodate birds with long tails.
Cage liner paper, paper towels or newspapers will do just fine. With using paper instead of sand or wood chips it is easier to monitor droppings for hygienic cleaning.
You can make it by hand by attaching two branches on each side of the cage with uncoated wire or a small bracket. Make sure they are set far enough from the food and water bowls. Use pesticide free, non-toxic trees, or buy a couple of bird perches from the pet store.
Lots of Toys!
Good objects to play with are soft white pine, rawhide and leather chews or pine cones. They also keep the beak healthy and keep your bird active. Avoid balsa wood, cedar, redwood and pressure-treated pine.
Because birds are constantly on display to the outside world, they also enjoy a degree of privacy. Use a towel or paper bag to give it some privacy.
The squirrel family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks and flying squirrels. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and were introduced by humans to Australia.
The word squirrel comes from the Ancient Greek word σκίουρος, skiouros, which means shadow-tailed. Squirrels are generally small animals, ranging in size from 7-10 cm and just 10 gr in weight. Squirrels typically have slender bodies with bushy tails and large eyes. In general, their fur is soft and silky, though much thicker in some species than others. The coat color of squirrels is highly variable between and often even within species.
In most squirrel species, the hind limbs are longer than the fore limbs, while all species have either four or five toes on each paw. The paws, which include an often poorly developed thumb, have soft pads on the undersides and versatile, sturdy claws for grasping and climbing.
Squirrels live in almost every habitat, from tropical rainforest to semiarid desert, avoiding only the high polar regions and the driest of deserts. They are predominantly herbivorous, subsisting on seeds and nuts, but many will eat insects.
As their large eyes indicate, squirrels have an excellent sense of vision, which is especially important for the tree-dwelling species. Many also have a good sense of touch, with whiskers on their limbs as well as their heads.
#9 Guinea Pig